# Source code for yellowbrick.classifier.rocauc

```
# yellowbrick.classifier.rocauc
# Implements visual ROC/AUC curves for classification evaluation.
#
# Author: Rebecca Bilbro <[email protected]>
# Author: Benjamin Bengfort <[email protected]>
# Author: Neal Humphrey
# Created: Wed May 18 12:39:40 2016 -0400
#
# Copyright (C) 2017 District Data Labs
# For license information, see LICENSE.txt
#
# ID: rocauc.py [5388065] [email protected] $
"""
Implements visual ROC/AUC curves for classification evaluation.
"""
##########################################################################
## Imports
##########################################################################
import numpy as np
from ..exceptions import ModelError
from ..exceptions import YellowbrickValueError
from ..style.palettes import LINE_COLOR
from .base import ClassificationScoreVisualizer
from scipy import interp
from sklearn.preprocessing import label_binarize
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.metrics import auc, roc_curve
# Dictionary keys for ROCAUC
MACRO = "macro"
MICRO = "micro"
##########################################################################
## ROCAUC Visualizer
##########################################################################
[docs]class ROCAUC(ClassificationScoreVisualizer):
"""
Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are a measure of a
classifier's predictive quality that compares and visualizes the tradeoff
between the models' sensitivity and specificity. The ROC curve displays
the true positive rate on the Y axis and the false positive rate on the
X axis on both a global average and per-class basis. The ideal point is
therefore the top-left corner of the plot: false positives are zero and
true positives are one.
This leads to another metric, area under the curve (AUC), a computation
of the relationship between false positives and true positives. The higher
the AUC, the better the model generally is. However, it is also important
to inspect the "steepness" of the curve, as this describes the
maximization of the true positive rate while minimizing the false positive
rate. Generalizing "steepness" usually leads to discussions about
convexity, which we do not get into here.
Parameters
----------
model : estimator
Must be a classifier, otherwise raises YellowbrickTypeError
ax : matplotlib Axes, default: None
The axes to plot the figure on. If None is passed in the current axes
will be used (or generated if required).
classes : list
A list of class names for the legend. If classes is None and a y value
is passed to fit then the classes are selected from the target vector.
Note that the curves must be computed based on what is in the target
vector passed to the ``score()`` method. Class names are used for
labeling only and must be in the correct order to prevent confusion.
micro : bool, default = True
Plot the micro-averages ROC curve, computed from the sum of all true
positives and false positives across all classes. Micro is not defined
for binary classification problems with estimators with only a
decision_function method.
macro : bool, default = True
Plot the macro-averages ROC curve, which simply takes the average of
curves across all classes. Macro is not defined for binary
classification problems with estimators with only a decision_function
method.
per_class : bool, default = True
Plot the ROC curves for each individual class. This should be set
to false if only the macro or micro average curves are required. Per-
class classification is not defined for binary classification problems
with estimators with only a decision_function method.
kwargs : keyword arguments passed to the super class.
Currently passing in hard-coded colors for the Receiver Operating
Characteristic curve and the diagonal.
These will be refactored to a default Yellowbrick style.
Attributes
----------
score_ : float
Global accuracy score, unless micro or macro scores are requested
Notes
-----
ROC curves are typically used in binary classification, and in fact the
Scikit-Learn ``roc_curve`` metric is only able to perform metrics for
binary classifiers. As a result it is necessary to binarize the output or
to use one-vs-rest or one-vs-all strategies of classification. The
visualizer does its best to handle multiple situations, but exceptions can
arise from unexpected models or outputs.
Another important point is the relationship of class labels specified on
initialization to those drawn on the curves. The classes are not used to
constrain ordering or filter curves; the ROC computation happens on the
unique values specified in the target vector to the ``score`` method. To
ensure the best quality visualization, do not use a LabelEncoder for this
and do not pass in class labels.
.. seealso:: http://scikit-learn.org/stable/auto_examples/model_selection/plot_roc.html
.. todo:: Allow the class list to filter the curves on the visualization.
Examples
--------
>>> from yellowbrick.classifier import ROCAUC
>>> from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression
>>> from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
>>> data = load_data("occupancy")
>>> features = ["temp", "relative humidity", "light", "C02", "humidity"]
>>> X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y)
>>> oz = ROCAUC(LogisticRegression())
>>> oz.fit(X_train, y_train)
>>> oz.score(X_test, y_test)
>>> oz.poof()
"""
def __init__(self, model, ax=None, classes=None,
micro=True, macro=True, per_class=True, **kwargs):
super(ROCAUC, self).__init__(model, ax=ax, classes=classes, **kwargs)
# Set the visual parameters for ROCAUC
self.micro = micro
self.macro = macro
self.per_class = per_class
[docs] def score(self, X, y=None, **kwargs):
"""
Generates the predicted target values using the Scikit-Learn
estimator.
Parameters
----------
X : ndarray or DataFrame of shape n x m
A matrix of n instances with m features
y : ndarray or Series of length n
An array or series of target or class values
Returns
-------
score_ : float
Global accuracy unless micro or macro scores are requested.
"""
# Compute the predictions for the test data
y_pred = self._get_y_scores(X)
# Note: In the above, _get_y_scores calls either a decision_function or
# predict_proba, which should return a 2D array. But in a binary
# classification using an estimator with only a decision_function, y_pred
# will instead be 1D, meaning only one curve can be plotted. In this case,
# we set the _binary_decision attribute to True to ensure only one curve is
# computed and plotted later on.
if y_pred.ndim == 1:
self._binary_decision = True
# Raise an error if it's a binary decision and user has set micro,
# macro, or per_class to True
if self.micro or self.macro or self.per_class:
raise ModelError(
"Micro, macro, and per-class scores are not defined for "
"binary classification for estimators with only "
"decision_function methods; set micro, macro, and "
"per-class params to False."
)
else:
self._binary_decision = False
# If it's not a binary decision, at least one of micro, macro, or
# per_class must be True
if not self.micro and not self.macro and not self.per_class:
raise YellowbrickValueError(
"no curves will be drawn; specify micro, macro, or per_class"
)
# Classes may be label encoded so only use what's in y to compute.
# The self.classes_ attribute will be used as names for labels.
classes = np.unique(y)
n_classes = len(classes)
# Store the false positive rate, true positive rate and curve info.
self.fpr = dict()
self.tpr = dict()
self.roc_auc = dict()
# If the decision is binary, compute the ROC curve and ROC area
if self._binary_decision == True:
self.fpr[0], self.tpr[0], _ = roc_curve(y, y_pred)
self.roc_auc[0] = auc(self.fpr[0], self.tpr[0])
else:
# Otherwise compute the ROC curve and ROC area for each class
for i, c in enumerate(classes):
self.fpr[i], self.tpr[i], _ = roc_curve(y, y_pred[:,i], pos_label=c)
self.roc_auc[i] = auc(self.fpr[i], self.tpr[i])
# Compute micro average
if self.micro:
self._score_micro_average(y, y_pred, classes, n_classes)
# Compute macro average
if self.macro:
self._score_macro_average(n_classes)
# Draw the Curves
self.draw()
# Set score to micro average if specified
if self.micro:
self.score_ = self.roc_auc[MICRO]
# Set score to macro average if not micro
if self.macro:
self.score_ = self.roc_auc[MACRO]
# Set score to the base score if neither macro nor micro
self.score_ = self.estimator.score(X, y)
return self.score_
[docs] def draw(self):
"""
Renders ROC-AUC plot.
Called internally by score, possibly more than once
Returns
-------
ax : the axis with the plotted figure
"""
colors = self.colors[0:len(self.classes_)]
n_classes = len(colors)
# If it's a binary decision, plot the single ROC curve
if self._binary_decision == True:
self.ax.plot(
self.fpr[0], self.tpr[0],
label='ROC for binary decision, AUC = {:0.2f}'.format(
self.roc_auc[0]
)
)
# If per-class plotting is requested, plot ROC curves for each class
if self.per_class:
for i, color in zip(range(n_classes), colors):
self.ax.plot(
self.fpr[i], self.tpr[i], color=color,
label='ROC of class {}, AUC = {:0.2f}'.format(
self.classes_[i], self.roc_auc[i],
)
)
# If requested, plot the ROC curve for the micro average
if self.micro:
self.ax.plot(
self.fpr[MICRO], self.tpr[MICRO], linestyle="--",
color= self.colors[len(self.classes_)-1],
label='micro-average ROC curve, AUC = {:0.2f}'.format(
self.roc_auc["micro"],
)
)
# If requested, plot the ROC curve for the macro average
if self.macro:
self.ax.plot(
self.fpr[MACRO], self.tpr[MACRO], linestyle="--",
color= self.colors[len(self.classes_)-1],
label='macro-average ROC curve, AUC = {:0.2f}'.format(
self.roc_auc["macro"],
)
)
# Plot the line of no discrimination to compare the curve to.
self.ax.plot([0,1], [0,1], linestyle=':', c=LINE_COLOR)
return self.ax
[docs] def finalize(self, **kwargs):
"""
Finalize executes any subclass-specific axes finalization steps.
The user calls poof and poof calls finalize.
Parameters
----------
kwargs: generic keyword arguments.
"""
# Set the title and add the legend
self.set_title('ROC Curves for {}'.format(self.name))
self.ax.legend(loc='lower right', frameon=True)
# Set the limits for the ROC/AUC (always between 0 and 1)
self.ax.set_xlim([0.0, 1.0])
self.ax.set_ylim([0.0, 1.0])
# Set x and y axis labels
self.ax.set_ylabel('True Postive Rate')
self.ax.set_xlabel('False Positive Rate')
def _get_y_scores(self, X):
"""
The ``roc_curve`` metric requires target scores that can either be the
probability estimates of the positive class, confidence values or non-
thresholded measure of decisions (as returned by "decision_function").
This method computes the scores by resolving the estimator methods
that retreive these values.
.. todo:: implement confidence values metric.
Parameters
----------
X : ndarray or DataFrame of shape n x m
A matrix of n instances with m features -- generally the test data
that is associated with y_true values.
"""
# The resolution order of scoring functions
attrs = (
'predict_proba',
'decision_function',
)
# Return the first resolved function
for attr in attrs:
try:
method = getattr(self.estimator, attr, None)
if method:
return method(X)
except AttributeError:
# Some Scikit-Learn estimators have both probability and
# decision functions but override __getattr__ and raise an
# AttributeError on access.
# Note that because of the ordering of our attrs above,
# estimators with both will *only* ever use probability.
continue
# If we've gotten this far, raise an error
raise ModelError(
"ROCAUC requires estimators with predict_proba or "
"decision_function methods."
)
def _score_micro_average(self, y, y_pred, classes, n_classes):
"""
Compute the micro average scores for the ROCAUC curves.
"""
# Convert y to binarized array for micro and macro scores
y = label_binarize(y, classes=classes)
if n_classes == 2:
y = np.hstack((1-y, y))
# Compute micro-average
self.fpr[MICRO], self.tpr[MICRO], _ = roc_curve(y.ravel(), y_pred.ravel())
self.roc_auc[MICRO] = auc(self.fpr[MICRO], self.tpr[MICRO])
def _score_macro_average(self, n_classes):
"""
Compute the macro average scores for the ROCAUC curves.
"""
# Gather all FPRs
all_fpr = np.unique(np.concatenate([self.fpr[i] for i in range(n_classes)]))
avg_tpr = np.zeros_like(all_fpr)
# Compute the averages per class
for i in range(n_classes):
avg_tpr += interp(all_fpr, self.fpr[i], self.tpr[i])
# Finalize the average
avg_tpr /= n_classes
# Store the macro averages
self.fpr[MACRO] = all_fpr
self.tpr[MACRO] = avg_tpr
self.roc_auc[MACRO] = auc(self.fpr[MACRO], self.tpr[MACRO])
##########################################################################
## Quick method for ROCAUC
##########################################################################
def roc_auc(model, X, y=None, ax=None, **kwargs):
"""ROCAUC Quick method:
Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves are a measure of a
classifier's predictive quality that compares and visualizes the tradeoff
between the models' sensitivity and specificity. The ROC curve displays
the true positive rate on the Y axis and the false positive rate on the
X axis on both a global average and per-class basis. The ideal point is
therefore the top-left corner of the plot: false positives are zero and
true positives are one.
This leads to another metric, area under the curve (AUC), a computation
of the relationship between false positives and true positives. The higher
the AUC, the better the model generally is. However, it is also important
to inspect the "steepness" of the curve, as this describes the
maximization of the true positive rate while minimizing the false positive
rate. Generalizing "steepness" usually leads to discussions about
convexity, which we do not get into here.
Parameters
----------
model : the Scikit-Learn estimator
Should be an instance of a classifier, else the __init__ will
return an error.
X : ndarray or DataFrame of shape n x m
A matrix of n instances with m features
y : ndarray or Series of length n
An array or series of target or class values
ax : the axis to plot the figure on.
classes : list
A list of class names for the legend. If classes is None and a y value
is passed to fit then the classes are selected from the target vector.
Note that the curves must be computed based on what is in the target
vector passed to the ``score()`` method. Class names are used for
labeling only and must be in the correct order to prevent confusion.
micro : bool, default = True
Plot the micro-averages ROC curve, computed from the sum of all true
positives and false positives across all classes. Micro is not defined
for binary classification problems with estimators with only a
decision_function method.
macro : bool, default = True
Plot the macro-averages ROC curve, which simply takes the average of
curves across all classes. Macro is not defined for binary
classification problems with estimators with only a decision_function
method.
per_class : bool, default = True
Plot the ROC curves for each individual class. This should be set
to false if only the macro or micro average curves are required. Per-
class classification is not defined for binary classification problems
with estimators with only a decision_function method.
Notes
-----
ROC curves are typically used in binary classification, and in fact the
Scikit-Learn ``roc_curve`` metric is only able to perform metrics for
binary classifiers. As a result it is necessary to binarize the output or
to use one-vs-rest or one-vs-all strategies of classification. The
visualizer does its best to handle multiple situations, but exceptions can
arise from unexpected models or outputs.
Another important point is the relationship of class labels specified on
initialization to those drawn on the curves. The classes are not used to
constrain ordering or filter curves; the ROC computation happens on the
unique values specified in the target vector to the ``score`` method. To
ensure the best quality visualization, do not use a LabelEncoder for this
and do not pass in class labels.
.. seealso:: http://scikit-learn.org/stable/auto_examples/model_selection/plot_roc.html
.. todo:: Allow the class list to filter the curves on the visualization.
Examples
--------
>>> from yellowbrick.classifier import ROCAUC
>>> from sklearn.linear_model import LogisticRegression
>>> data = load_data("occupancy")
>>> features = ["temp", "relative humidity", "light", "C02", "humidity"]
>>> X = data[features].values
>>> y = data.occupancy.values
>>> roc_auc(LogisticRegression(), X, y)
Returns
-------
ax : matplotlib axes
Returns the axes that the roc-auc curve was drawn on.
"""
# Instantiate the visualizer
visualizer = ROCAUC(model, ax, **kwargs)
# Create the train and test splits
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2)
# Fit and transform the visualizer (calls draw)
visualizer.fit(X_train, y_train, **kwargs)
visualizer.score(X_test, y_test)
visualizer.finalize()
# Return the axes object on the visualizer
return visualizer.ax
```