# Source code for yellowbrick.features.jointplot

```
# yellowbrick.features.jointplot
# Implementation of joint plots for univariate and bivariate analysis.
#
# Author: Prema Damodaran Roman
# Created: Mon Apr 10 21:00:54 2017 -0400
#
# Copyright (C) 2017 The scikit-yb developers.
# For license information, see LICENSE.txt
#
# ID: jointplot.py [7f47800] pdamodaran@users.noreply.github.com $
##########################################################################
## Imports
##########################################################################
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
try:
# Only available in Matplotlib >= 2.0.2
from mpl_toolkits.axes_grid1 import make_axes_locatable
except ImportError:
make_axes_locatable = None
from .base import FeatureVisualizer
# from ..bestfit import draw_best_fit # TODO: return in #728
from ..utils.types import is_dataframe
from ..exceptions import YellowbrickValueError
from scipy.stats import pearsonr, spearmanr, kendalltau
# Default Colors
# TODO: should we reuse these colors?
FACECOLOR = "#FAFAFA"
HISTCOLOR = "#6897bb"
# Objects for export
__all__ = ["JointPlot", "JointPlotVisualizer", "joint_plot"]
##########################################################################
## Joint Plot Visualizer
##########################################################################
[docs]class JointPlot(FeatureVisualizer):
"""
Joint plots are useful for machine learning on multi-dimensional data, allowing for
the visualization of complex interactions between different data dimensions, their
varying distributions, and even their relationships to the target variable for
prediction.
The Yellowbrick ``JointPlot`` can be used both for pairwise feature analysis and
feature-to-target plots. For pairwise feature analysis, the ``columns`` argument can
be used to specify the index of the two desired columns in ``X``. If ``y`` is also
specified, the plot can be colored with a heatmap or by class. For feature-to-target
plots, the user can provide either ``X`` and ``y`` as 1D vectors, or a ``columns``
argument with an index to a single feature in ``X`` to be plotted against ``y``.
Histograms can be included by setting the ``hist`` argument to ``True`` for a
frequency distribution, or to ``"density"`` for a probability density function. Note
that histograms requires matplotlib 2.0.2 or greater.
Parameters
----------
ax : matplotlib Axes, default: None
The axes to plot the figure on. If None is passed in the current axes will be
used (or generated if required). This is considered the base axes where the
the primary joint plot is drawn. It will be shifted and two additional axes
added above (xhax) and to the right (yhax) if hist=True.
columns : int, str, [int, int], [str, str], default: None
Determines what data is plotted in the joint plot and acts as a selection index
into the data passed to ``fit(X, y)``. This data therefore must be indexable by
the column type (e.g. an int for a numpy array or a string for a DataFrame).
If None is specified then either both X and y must be 1D vectors and they will
be plotted against each other or X must be a 2D array with only 2 columns. If a
single index is specified then the data is indexed as ``X[columns]`` and plotted
jointly with the target variable, y. If two indices are specified then they are
both selected from X, additionally in this case, if y is specified, then it is
used to plot the color of points.
Note that these names are also used as the x and y axes labels if they aren't
specified in the joint_kws argument.
correlation : str, default: 'pearson'
The algorithm used to compute the relationship between the variables in the
joint plot, one of: 'pearson', 'covariance', 'spearman', 'kendalltau'.
kind : str in {'scatter', 'hex'}, default: 'scatter'
The type of plot to render in the joint axes. Note that when kind='hex' the
target cannot be plotted by color.
hist : {True, False, None, 'density', 'frequency'}, default: True
Draw histograms showing the distribution of the variables plotted jointly.
If set to 'density', the probability density function will be plotted.
If set to True or 'frequency' then the frequency will be plotted.
Requires Matplotlib >= 2.0.2.
alpha : float, default: 0.65
Specify a transparency where 1 is completely opaque and 0 is completely
transparent. This property makes densely clustered points more visible.
{joint, hist}_kws : dict, default: None
Additional keyword arguments for the plot components.
kwargs : dict
Keyword arguments that are passed to the base class and may influence
the visualization as defined in other Visualizers.
Attributes
----------
corr_ : float
The correlation or relationship of the data in the joint plot, specified by the
correlation algorithm.
Examples
--------
>>> viz = JointPlot(columns=["temp", "humidity"])
>>> viz.fit(X, y)
>>> viz.show()
"""
# TODO: should we couple more closely with Rank2D?
correlation_methods = {
"pearson": lambda x, y: pearsonr(x, y)[0],
"spearman": lambda x, y: spearmanr(x, y)[0],
"covariance": lambda x, y: np.cov(x, y)[0, 1],
"kendalltau": lambda x, y: kendalltau(x, y)[0],
}
def __init__(
self,
ax=None,
columns=None,
correlation="pearson",
kind="scatter",
hist=True,
alpha=0.65,
joint_kws=None,
hist_kws=None,
**kwargs
):
# Initialize the visualizer
super(JointPlot, self).__init__(ax=ax, **kwargs)
self._xhax, self._yhax = None, None
# Set and validate the columns
self.columns = columns
if self.columns is not None and not isinstance(self.columns, (int, str)):
self.columns = tuple(self.columns)
if len(self.columns) > 2:
raise YellowbrickValueError(
(
"'{}' contains too many indices or is invalid for joint plot - "
"specify either a single int or str index or two columns as a list"
).format(columns)
)
# Seet and validate the correlation
self.correlation = correlation
if self.correlation not in self.correlation_methods:
raise YellowbrickValueError(
"'{}' is an invalid correlation method, use one of {}".format(
self.correlation, ", ".join(self.correlation_methods.keys())
)
)
# Set and validate the kind of plot
self.kind = kind
if self.kind not in {"scatter", "hex", "hexbin"}:
raise YellowbrickValueError(
("'{}' is invalid joint plot kind, use 'scatter' or 'hex'").format(
self.kind
)
)
# Set and validate the histogram if specified
self.hist = hist
if self.hist not in {True, "density", "frequency", None, False}:
raise YellowbrickValueError(
(
"'{}' is an invalid argument for hist, use None, True, "
"False, 'density', or 'frequency'"
).format(hist)
)
# If hist is True, test the version availability
if self.hist in {True, "density", "frequency"}:
self._layout()
# Set the additional visual parameters
self.alpha = alpha
self.joint_kws = joint_kws
self.hist_kws = hist_kws
@property
def xhax(self):
"""
The axes of the histogram for the top of the JointPlot (X-axis)
"""
if self._xhax is None:
raise AttributeError(
"this visualizer does not have a histogram for the X axis"
)
return self._xhax
@property
def yhax(self):
"""
The axes of the histogram for the right of the JointPlot (Y-axis)
"""
if self._yhax is None:
raise AttributeError(
"this visualizer does not have a histogram for the Y axis"
)
return self._yhax
def _layout(self):
"""
Creates the grid layout for the joint plot, adding new axes for the histograms
if necessary and modifying the aspect ratio. Does not modify the axes or the
layout if self.hist is False or None.
"""
# Ensure the axes are created if not hist, then return.
if not self.hist:
self.ax
return
# Ensure matplotlib version compatibility
if make_axes_locatable is None:
raise YellowbrickValueError(
(
"joint plot histograms requires matplotlib 2.0.2 or greater "
"please upgrade matplotlib or set hist=False on the visualizer"
)
)
# Create the new axes for the histograms
divider = make_axes_locatable(self.ax)
self._xhax = divider.append_axes("top", size=1, pad=0.1, sharex=self.ax)
self._yhax = divider.append_axes("right", size=1, pad=0.1, sharey=self.ax)
# Modify the display of the axes
self._xhax.xaxis.tick_top()
self._yhax.yaxis.tick_right()
self._xhax.grid(False, axis="y")
self._yhax.grid(False, axis="x")
[docs] def fit(self, X, y=None):
"""
Fits the JointPlot, creating a correlative visualization between the columns
specified during initialization and the data and target passed into fit:
- If self.columns is None then X and y must both be specified as 1D arrays
or X must be a 2D array with only 2 columns.
- If self.columns is a single int or str, that column is selected to be
visualized against the target y.
- If self.columns is two ints or strs, those columns are visualized against
each other. If y is specified then it is used to color the points.
This is the main entry point into the joint plot visualization.
Parameters
----------
X : array-like
An array-like object of either 1 or 2 dimensions depending on self.columns.
Usually this is a 2D table with shape (n, m)
y : array-like, default: None
An vector or 1D array that has the same length as X. May be used to either
directly plot data or to color data points.
"""
# Convert python objects to numpy arrays
if isinstance(X, (list, tuple)):
X = np.array(X)
if y is not None and isinstance(y, (list, tuple)):
y = np.array(y)
# Case where no columns are specified
if self.columns is None:
if (y is None and (X.ndim != 2 or X.shape[1] != 2)) or (
y is not None and (X.ndim != 1 or y.ndim != 1)
):
raise YellowbrickValueError(
(
"when self.columns is None specify either X and y as 1D arrays "
"or X as a matrix with 2 columns"
)
)
if y is None:
# Draw the first column as x and the second column as y
self.draw(X[:, 0], X[:, 1], xlabel="0", ylabel="1")
return self
# Draw x against y
self.draw(X, y, xlabel="x", ylabel="y")
return self
# Case where a single string or int index is specified
if isinstance(self.columns, (int, str)):
if y is None:
raise YellowbrickValueError(
"when self.columns is a single index, y must be specified"
)
# fetch the index from X -- raising index error if not possible
x = self._index_into(self.columns, X)
self.draw(x, y, xlabel=str(self.columns), ylabel="target")
return self
# Case where there is a double index for both columns
columns = tuple(self.columns)
if len(columns) != 2:
raise YellowbrickValueError(
("'{}' contains too many indices or is invalid for joint plot").format(
columns
)
)
# TODO: color the points based on the target if it is given
x = self._index_into(columns[0], X)
y = self._index_into(columns[1], X)
self.draw(x, y, xlabel=str(columns[0]), ylabel=str(columns[1]))
return self
[docs] def draw(self, x, y, xlabel=None, ylabel=None):
"""
Draw the joint plot for the data in x and y.
Parameters
----------
x, y : 1D array-like
The data to plot for the x axis and the y axis
xlabel, ylabel : str
The labels for the x and y axes.
"""
# This is a little weird to be here, but it is the best place to perform
# this computation given how fit calls draw and returns.
self.corr_ = self.correlation_methods[self.correlation](x, y)
# First draw the joint plot
joint_kws = self.joint_kws or {}
joint_kws.setdefault("alpha", self.alpha)
joint_kws.setdefault("label", "{}={:0.3f}".format(self.correlation, self.corr_))
# Draw scatter joint plot
if self.kind == "scatter":
self.ax.scatter(x, y, **joint_kws)
# TODO: Draw best fit line (or should this be kind='reg'?)
# Draw hexbin joint plot
elif self.kind in ("hex", "hexbin"):
joint_kws.setdefault("mincnt", 1)
joint_kws.setdefault("gridsize", 50)
joint_kws.setdefault("cmap", "Blues")
self.ax.hexbin(x, y, **joint_kws)
# Something bad happened
else:
raise ValueError("unknown joint plot kind '{}'".format(self.kind))
# Set the X and Y axis labels on the plot
self.ax.set_xlabel(xlabel)
self.ax.set_ylabel(ylabel)
# If we're not going to draw histograms, stop here
if not self.hist:
# Ensure the current axes is always the main joint plot axes
plt.sca(self.ax)
return self.ax
# Draw the histograms
hist_kws = self.hist_kws or {}
hist_kws.setdefault("bins", 50)
if self.hist == "density":
hist_kws.setdefault("density", True)
self.xhax.hist(x, **hist_kws)
self.yhax.hist(y, orientation="horizontal", **hist_kws)
# Ensure the current axes is always the main joint plot axes
plt.sca(self.ax)
return self.ax
[docs] def finalize(self, **kwargs):
"""
Finalize executes any remaining image modifications making it ready to show.
"""
# Set the aspect ratio to make the visualization square
# TODO: still unable to make plot square using make_axes_locatable
# x0,x1 = self.ax.get_xlim()
# y0,y1 = self.ax.get_ylim()
# self.ax.set_aspect(abs(x1-x0)/abs(y1-y0))
# Add the title to the plot if the user has set one.
self.set_title("")
# TODO: use manual legend so legend works with both scatter and hexbin
# Set the legend with full opacity patches using manual legend.
# Or Add the colorbar if this is a continuous plot.
if self.kind == "scatter":
self.ax.legend(loc="best", frameon=True)
# Finalize the histograms
if self.hist:
plt.setp(self.xhax.get_xticklabels(), visible=False)
plt.setp(self.yhax.get_yticklabels(), visible=False)
plt.sca(self.ax)
# Call tight layout to maximize readability
self.fig.tight_layout()
def _index_into(self, idx, data):
"""
Attempts to get the column from the data using the specified index, raises an
exception if this is not possible from this point in the stack.
"""
try:
if is_dataframe(data):
# Assume column indexing
return data[idx]
# Otherwise assume numpy array-like indexing
return data[:, idx]
except Exception as e:
raise IndexError(
"could not index column '{}' into type {}: {}".format(
self.columns, data.__class__.__name__, e
)
)
# Alias for JointPlot
JointPlotVisualizer = JointPlot
##########################################################################
## Quick Method for JointPlot visualizations
##########################################################################
[docs]def joint_plot(
X,
y,
ax=None,
columns=None,
correlation="pearson",
kind="scatter",
hist=True,
alpha=0.65,
joint_kws=None,
hist_kws=None,
show=True,
**kwargs
):
"""
Joint plots are useful for machine learning on multi-dimensional data, allowing for
the visualization of complex interactions between different data dimensions, their
varying distributions, and even their relationships to the target variable for
prediction.
The Yellowbrick ``JointPlot`` can be used both for pairwise feature analysis and
feature-to-target plots. For pairwise feature analysis, the ``columns`` argument can
be used to specify the index of the two desired columns in ``X``. If ``y`` is also
specified, the plot can be colored with a heatmap or by class. For feature-to-target
plots, the user can provide either ``X`` and ``y`` as 1D vectors, or a ``columns``
argument with an index to a single feature in ``X`` to be plotted against ``y``.
Histograms can be included by setting the ``hist`` argument to ``True`` for a
frequency distribution, or to ``"density"`` for a probability density function. Note
that histograms requires matplotlib 2.0.2 or greater.
Parameters
----------
X : array-like
An array-like object of either 1 or 2 dimensions depending on self.columns.
Usually this is a 2D table with shape (n, m)
y : array-like, default: None
An vector or 1D array that has the same length as X. May be used to either
directly plot data or to color data points.
ax : matplotlib Axes, default: None
The axes to plot the figure on. If None is passed in the current axes will be
used (or generated if required). This is considered the base axes where the
the primary joint plot is drawn. It will be shifted and two additional axes
added above (xhax) and to the right (yhax) if hist=True.
columns : int, str, [int, int], [str, str], default: None
Determines what data is plotted in the joint plot and acts as a selection index
into the data passed to ``fit(X, y)``. This data therefore must be indexable by
the column type (e.g. an int for a numpy array or a string for a DataFrame).
If None is specified then either both X and y must be 1D vectors and they will
be plotted against each other or X must be a 2D array with only 2 columns. If a
single index is specified then the data is indexed as ``X[columns]`` and plotted
jointly with the target variable, y. If two indices are specified then they are
both selected from X, additionally in this case, if y is specified, then it is
used to plot the color of points.
Note that these names are also used as the x and y axes labels if they aren't
specified in the joint_kws argument.
correlation : str, default: 'pearson'
The algorithm used to compute the relationship between the variables in the
joint plot, one of: 'pearson', 'covariance', 'spearman', 'kendalltau'.
kind : str in {'scatter', 'hex'}, default: 'scatter'
The type of plot to render in the joint axes. Note that when kind='hex' the
target cannot be plotted by color.
hist : {True, False, None, 'density', 'frequency'}, default: True
Draw histograms showing the distribution of the variables plotted jointly.
If set to 'density', the probability density function will be plotted.
If set to True or 'frequency' then the frequency will be plotted.
Requires Matplotlib >= 2.0.2.
alpha : float, default: 0.65
Specify a transparency where 1 is completely opaque and 0 is completely
transparent. This property makes densely clustered points more visible.
{joint, hist}_kws : dict, default: None
Additional keyword arguments for the plot components.
show : bool, default: True
If True, calls ``show()``, which in turn calls ``plt.show()`` however you cannot
call ``plt.savefig`` from this signature, nor ``clear_figure``. If False, simply
calls ``finalize()``
kwargs : dict
Keyword arguments that are passed to the base class and may influence
the visualization as defined in other Visualizers.
Attributes
----------
corr_ : float
The correlation or relationship of the data in the joint plot, specified by the
correlation algorithm.
"""
visualizer = JointPlot(
ax=ax,
columns=columns,
correlation=correlation,
kind=kind,
hist=hist,
alpha=alpha,
joint_kws=joint_kws,
hist_kws=hist_kws,
**kwargs
)
# Fit and show the visualizer
visualizer.fit(X, y)
if show:
visualizer.show()
else:
visualizer.finalize()
return visualizer
```