Silhouette Visualizer¶
The Silhouette Coefficient is used when the groundtruth about the dataset is unknown and computes the density of clusters computed by the model. The score is computed by averaging the silhouette coefficient for each sample, computed as the difference between the average intracluster distance and the mean nearestcluster distance for each sample, normalized by the maximum value. This produces a score between 1 and 1, where 1 is highly dense clusters and 1 is completely incorrect clustering.
The Silhouette Visualizer displays the silhouette coefficient for each sample on a percluster basis, visualizing which clusters are dense and which are not. This is particularly useful for determining cluster imbalance, or for selecting a value for \(K\) by comparing multiple visualizers.
Visualizer 

Quick Method 

Models 
Clustering 
Workflow 
Model evaluation 
Examples and demo
from sklearn.cluster import KMeans
from yellowbrick.cluster import SilhouetteVisualizer
from yellowbrick.datasets import load_nfl
# Load a clustering dataset
X, y = load_nfl()
# Specify the features to use for clustering
features = ['Rec', 'Yds', 'TD', 'Fmb', 'Ctch_Rate']
X = X.query('Tgt >= 20')[features]
# Instantiate the clustering model and visualizer
model = KMeans(5, random_state=42)
visualizer = SilhouetteVisualizer(model, colors='yellowbrick')
visualizer.fit(X) # Fit the data to the visualizer
visualizer.show() # Finalize and render the figure
(Source code, png, pdf)
Quick Method¶
The same functionality above can be achieved with the associated quick method silhouette_visualizer. This method will build the Silhouette Visualizer object with the associated arguments, fit it, then (optionally) immediately show it.
from sklearn.cluster import KMeans
from yellowbrick.cluster import silhouette_visualizer
from yellowbrick.datasets import load_credit
# Load a clustering dataset
X, y = load_credit()
# Specify rows to cluster: under 40 y/o and have either graduate or university education
X = X[(X['age'] <= 40) & (X['edu'].isin([1,2]))]
# Use the quick method and immediately show the figure
silhouette_visualizer(KMeans(5, random_state=42), X, colors='yellowbrick')
(Source code, png, pdf)
API Reference¶
Implements visualizers that use the silhouette metric for cluster evaluation.

class
yellowbrick.cluster.silhouette.
SilhouetteVisualizer
(estimator, ax=None, colors=None, is_fitted='auto', **kwargs)[source]¶ Bases:
yellowbrick.cluster.base.ClusteringScoreVisualizer
The Silhouette Visualizer displays the silhouette coefficient for each sample on a percluster basis, visually evaluating the density and separation between clusters. The score is calculated by averaging the silhouette coefficient for each sample, computed as the difference between the average intracluster distance and the mean nearestcluster distance for each sample, normalized by the maximum value. This produces a score between 1 and +1, where scores near +1 indicate high separation and scores near 1 indicate that the samples may have been assigned to the wrong cluster.
In SilhouetteVisualizer plots, clusters with higher scores have wider silhouettes, but clusters that are less cohesive will fall short of the average score across all clusters, which is plotted as a vertical dotted red line.
This is particularly useful for determining cluster imbalance, or for selecting a value for K by comparing multiple visualizers.
 Parameters
 estimatora ScikitLearn clusterer
Should be an instance of a centroidal clustering algorithm (
KMeans
orMiniBatchKMeans
). If the estimator is not fitted, it is fit when the visualizer is fitted, unless otherwise specified byis_fitted
. axmatplotlib Axes, default: None
The axes to plot the figure on. If None is passed in the current axes will be used (or generated if required).
 colorsiterable or string, default: None
A collection of colors to use for each cluster group. If there are fewer colors than cluster groups, colors will repeat. May also be a Yellowbrick or matplotlib colormap string.
 is_fittedbool or str, default=’auto’
Specify if the wrapped estimator is already fitted. If False, the estimator will be fit when the visualizer is fit, otherwise, the estimator will not be modified. If ‘auto’ (default), a helper method will check if the estimator is fitted before fitting it again.
 kwargsdict
Keyword arguments that are passed to the base class and may influence the visualization as defined in other Visualizers.
Examples
>>> from yellowbrick.cluster import SilhouetteVisualizer >>> from sklearn.cluster import KMeans >>> model = SilhouetteVisualizer(KMeans(10)) >>> model.fit(X) >>> model.show()
 Attributes
 silhouette_score_float
Mean Silhouette Coefficient for all samples. Computed via scikitlearn sklearn.metrics.silhouette_score.
 silhouette_samples_array, shape = [n_samples]
Silhouette Coefficient for each samples. Computed via scikitlearn sklearn.metrics.silhouette_samples.
 n_samples_integer
Number of total samples in the dataset (X.shape[0])
 n_clusters_integer
Number of clusters (e.g. n_clusters or k value) passed to internal scikitlearn model.
 y_tick_pos_array of shape (n_clusters,)
The computed center positions of each cluster on the yaxis

draw
(labels)[source]¶ Draw the silhouettes for each sample and the average score.
 Parameters
 labelsarraylike
An array with the cluster label for each silhouette sample, usually computed with
predict()
. Labels are not stored on the visualizer so that the figure can be redrawn with new data.

yellowbrick.cluster.silhouette.
silhouette_visualizer
(estimator, X, y=None, ax=None, colors=None, is_fitted='auto', show=True, **kwargs)[source]¶ Quick Method: The Silhouette Visualizer displays the silhouette coefficient for each sample on a percluster basis, visually evaluating the density and separation between clusters. The score is calculated by averaging the silhouette coefficient for each sample, computed as the difference between the average intracluster distance and the mean nearestcluster distance for each sample, normalized by the maximum value. This produces a score between 1 and +1, where scores near +1 indicate high separation and scores near 1 indicate that the samples may have been assigned to the wrong cluster.
 Parameters
 estimatora ScikitLearn clusterer
Should be an instance of a centroidal clustering algorithm (
KMeans
orMiniBatchKMeans
). If the estimator is not fitted, it is fit when the visualizer is fitted, unless otherwise specified byis_fitted
. Xarraylike of shape (n, m)
A matrix or data frame with n instances and m features
 yarraylike of shape (n,), optional
A vector or series representing the target for each instance
 axmatplotlib Axes, default: None
The axis to plot the figure on. If None is passed in the current axes will be used (or generated if required).
 colorsiterable or string, default: None
A collection of colors to use for each cluster group. If there are fewer colors than cluster groups, colors will repeat. May also be a Yellowbrick or matplotlib colormap string.
 is_fittedbool or str, default=’auto’
Specify if the wrapped estimator is already fitted. If False, the estimator will be fit when the visualizer is fit, otherwise, the estimator will not be modified. If ‘auto’ (default), a helper method will check if the estimator is fitted before fitting it again.
 showbool, default: True
If True, calls
show()
, which in turn callsplt.show()
however you cannot callplt.savefig
from this signature, norclear_figure
. If False, simply callsfinalize()
 kwargsdict
Keyword arguments that are passed to the base class and may influence the visualization as defined in other Visualizers.
 Returns
 vizSilhouetteVisualizer
The silhouette visualizer, fitted and finalized.